A heart murmur is characterized by abnormal heart sounds. Heart murmurs are caused by blood flowing over or through an irregular surface. Not all murmurs require surgery. Murmurs are divided into two typologies, these are innocent murmurs and abnormal murmurs. Innocent murmurs are benign and ordinarily require no treatment. Abnormal murmurs are ordinarily a result of congenital defects in children and, in adults, are usually caused by heart valve problems. An abnormal murmur is characterized by a blue skin complexion, reduced eating and inhibited growth in infants, fast breathing, excessive sweating, chest pain, dizziness, shortness of breath, fainting, and fatigue. Treatment options include treating the underlying cause, medication, and surgery.
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