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Hydrocephalus is characterized by an abnormal augmentation of cerebrospinal liquid in the liquid-filled cavities of the brain. The condition is caused by an imbalance between the volume of cerebrospinal liquid that is created and the velocity at which the body absorbs it. The condition may also be known as “water on the brain”. The symptoms are various and may depend on age, the progression of the disease and the individual’s capability to tolerate cerebrospinal liquid. However, symptoms experienced may appear as a rapid swelling of the head, vomiting, drowsiness, irritability, seizures, headache, nausea, papilledema, impaired vision, double vision, sunsetting of the eyes, poor balance or coordination, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence. Hydrocephalus may be treated with surgical procedures and involve inserting a shunt or excising obstructions. Medication may be applied in mild cases.

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